Monthly Archives: April 2005

SAP in Government Technology

Saturday, April 30, 2005

SAP in Government Technology

Magnifying Data
By Jim McKay
Apr 27, 2005
Whether it’s referred to as text mining, performance measurement, predictive analytics, enterprise analytics or business intelligence, software applications that help manage and analyze data are finding their way into public-sector agencies — sometimes with inspiring results.

Oftentimes government agencies possess the data to reach constructive conclusions, but have no way of putting the data into a usable format. That’s where analytics come into play. Analytics are especially useful in areas where huge amounts of data are amassed but often not used constructively, such as billing fraud, audit selection, law enforcement and as an addition to ERP systems.

Analytics can be used to determine where crimes are likely to occur within a given time frame, as the police in Richmond, Va., demonstrated when they overhauled officer deployment on New Year’s Eve.

Practical Purposes
The software differs by name from vendor to vendor, but the basic premise is the same: Convert data to streamline processes, save money and increase productivity.

SAP’s platform, sometimes called a business intelligence portal, offers a data management system that organizes and analyzes data from varied systems and organizations, then presents it to users through a common portal.

“We provide full-blown enterprise software,” said Steve Peck, president of SAP Public Services. “It’s integrating business processes for companies of all shapes and sizes, and entities of all shapes and sizes, helping them integrate the business processes and become more efficient.”

SPSS Inc.’s analytics software uses algorithms to develop “clusters,” or packets, of useful information derived from statistical analysis or text mining, presenting those clusters to the user through a graphical interface.

Dallas’ 311 system, though extremely useful to city residents, creates a problem for the city because of the vast amounts of data pouring through the system. To get a better handle on what the data could tell the city, CIO Brian Anderson enlisted Cognos software to develop performance measurement strategies for more effective management.

Anderson said he saw the benefits of data analysis while he was CIO of Philadelphia, where the police department spent $11 million per year on overtime. Analysis of the data revealed that a district attorney policy cost the police way too much money and manpower.

The policy called for numerous officers to be listed as arresting officers in each arrest, and all arresting officers were required to be in court with the arrestee. For every officer in court another had to be paid overtime to fill his regular shift.

“Sometimes we had 15 [officers] for every arrest sitting around the courthouse,” Anderson said. “In identifying the issue, we were able to change the management practice and saved millions.”

The spreadsheet numbers didn’t show the trends, he said, but the analytic software did.

One key area for state and local government users of SPSS analytics tools is Medicaid fraud, according to SPSS’ Public Sector Technical Director Bill Haffey. New York state contracted with SPSS to develop a data-mining or predictive analytic model that would detect fraudulent Medicaid claims.

The model included five years’ worth — more than 10 terabytes — of data from more than 52 counties. The system uses algorithms to group providers with similar behavior. Provider groups are defined by volume of Medicaid claims, type of procedure, or demographics of their patient group. Once the software develops provider groups, Haffey said, sparsely populated groups of providers arouse suspicion because those providers are billing in unusual patterns.

Commercial Origins
The concept originated in the commercial sector. Haffey used an analogy of a grocery store manager watching shopping carts to see who buys what.

“With that kind of information,” he said, “you can make marketing decisions, such as putting bananas in the same isle as cereal or maybe on the other side of the store so the shopper has to walk from one side of the store to another and picks up things along the way.”

A more progressive example is a T. Rowe Price call center. Since it’s known that people who buy mutual funds also tend to buy insurance policies, callers purchasing mutual funds are immediately tagged as potential insurance buyers, said Haffey, adding that putting analytic software in a commercial perspective makes it easy to see how the software could be useful in government applications as well.

The concept is put to the test in auditing. States have typically used the “volume exercise” to choose which corporations to audit by looking back at corporations audited in the past and where the payout was large. Those corporations would be targets for audit again.

Analytic software can predict, down to each corporation, what the tax adjustment would be if the corporation were audited. With those numbers, gathered from sources such as the previous year’s returns, government can be more precise in targeting corporations that will yield large adjustments.

Analytics and Law Breakers
Police in Richmond, Va., plan to expand the use of analytics to boost efficiency after successfully using the software tool to plan for the New Year’s Eve celebration, which has put an annual strain on the department. Traditionally New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day in Richmond meant a full shift for every police officer in the department.

“They pretty much considered the holiday a two-day period and just flooded the streets with officers,” said Kelly McCue, formerly a crime analysis supervisor with the Richmond Police Department and now a research scientist with RTI International, who still consults with Richmond. “We fell back a little bit and said, ‘Maybe that’s not the best way to do things.'”

Last year, Richmond police tried analytics software furnished by SPSS to determine whether the tool could help with the staffing problems caused by the holiday.

“We looked at historical trends and patterns, and Richmond, like many communities, is challenged by random gunfire on New Year’s Eve,” McCue said. “We decided to go ahead and use a risk-based deployment strategy.”

By looking at trends developed from the software, department officials confirmed what they thought they knew: Flooding the area was a waste of resources. Using the software, officials found that the four-hour period between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. was the critical period and decided to deploy officers in strategic locations at strategic times.

Fifty officers were allowed to have the holiday off, saving the department $15,000. They also reduced citizen complaints by 47 percent and increased the number of firearms removed from circulation by 245 percent.

The results convinced the department that analytics is a key part of its future.

“One thing we realized is that the whole field of behavioral profiling of criminal investigative analysis is based on the concept that crime — even the most serious, violent crime — tends to be very homogenous and predictable,” McCue said. “If that wasn’t the case, we wouldn’t have profilers, and we wouldn’t have all those cool movies. We’d really be at a loss.”

The department now uses analytics early in investigations to get a jump on trying to determine motive, and is beginning to think in terms of models that can predict criminal activity, McCue said.

“Using this type of methodology, we’ve now been able to characterize certain types of crime, particularly violent crime, using information available at the scene, victim characteristics, things that might have made them a higher risk or lower risk,” she said. “That starts to provide insight in terms of the type of person likely to have committed the crime or perhaps motive.”

The software clusters information so the investigator can detect behavior patterns and narrow the search, though investigators must rely on their own skills to interpret results, McCue said.

“You’re not able to run these algorithms and have it come back and say ‘Bob did it.”‘

The New Tools
Today’s analytical tools are getting easier to use, but users must know what data to look for to utilize the tools effectively.

“It’s a balancing act,” McCue said. “It’s important to understand some of the math involved, but the new tools — especially those that are Windows based — are highly intuitive.”

She said the challenge is acquiring the domain expertise required to develop models that are accurate, valid and useful to the end-user. There are different types of models, and the models can be as complicated or as simple as the user wants.

“If you end up with something so complicated where it’s like the [crime occurs on the] second Thursday of each month, then it becomes really difficult to act on it. In some cases, we will compromise on accuracy to have only the variables that are relevant.”

Those variables are usually time, location and victim characteristics. In some instances, said McCue, users must be careful not to oversimplify the model. She gave an example of a model designed to predict if armed robberies were likely to escalate into aggravated assault.

The system might come up with a statistic that just 3 percent of armed robberies escalated and could conclude that it was statistically not a factor, which would be dangerous.

“Theoretically you could create a model that’s very simple that would say it would never happen,” McCue said. She said the hard part is determining what data is available and which model to use.

Going the Wrong Way
Broward County Public Schools in Florida stumbled with its first application of analytics, but is at it again. The district — the sixth largest in the country with nearly 40,000 employees — began implementing business analytics about three years ago and has since spent around $25 million.

The district first implemented two SAP business modules where the cost of the software was $3.5 million. The problem arose with implementation of the models, which ended up adding $17 million to the implementation’s overall cost. Vijay Sonty, who took over as CIO of the district last year, said the district would have benefited from more planning, but the district is now building some useful analysis models and has learned a few lessons.

“We went the wrong way,” he said. “We did a lot of things wrong. We didn’t do a needs assessment. We didn’t get our users involved. The lessons [we] learned are simply the first things you do before you do a large-scale ERP rollout.”

A main sticking point with the district was that it maintained business practices and largely paper-based processes that were 15 to 30 years old, and wanted the software to adapt to those. Specifically, the district had problems matching SAP’s payroll system module to processes already in place, and kept spending money trying to make it fit, Sonty said.

“What happened is the customer is always right,” he recalled. “[SAP] said, ‘Go this way. Adopt SAP methodology.’ We said no.”

The district spent a lot of money on convoluted systems, and is trying again with SAP — this time armed with more knowledge.

“With this new implementation, we’re doing a detailed needs assessment defining what the current processes are and looking at what processes we can improve.”

An important part of implementing analytics is getting buy-in from everyone involved, said SAP’s Peck.

“If someone is trying to implement a project and it’s just ‘that IT project,’ that’s a recipe for disaster,” he cautioned. “In this case, everybody is really on board.”

The early benefit is that the district has learned it must streamline and change its practices.

“We’re taking a detailed look at the human capital, the financial capital — do we have the right knowledge and the right management structure to make sure we have the right project leads,” Sonty said. “And we’re taking a phased approach.”

The district is implementing several of SAP’s business intelligence modules in phases, including a CRM module, a financial system, an HR system and eventually, a complete ERP portal. This time, the total software cost should be around $6.3 million.

The goals are to determine “business benefits” to each department and manage the data from various departments more efficiently for reporting purposes and performance measurements, Sonty said.

“Previously we didn’t have a good inventory system set up. We didn’t have a good work order system, and there was a lot of duplication of data and a lot of data entry error. Now we’re able to minimize all that because you enter the data once at the source, apply uniform business rules and practices across the district, and combine it into an enterprisewide environment,” he said. “The real value for us goes back to the business warehouse. All these modules being integrated, they’re able to use SAP’s portal environment to slice and dice the data, and run reports.”

In addition to the benefits of report writing capabilities, what the software means to the district, in simple terms, is that a user can find pertinent information quickly without having to manipulate multiple systems.

“Previously we had 35 systems to navigate,” he said, “and the reports were always wrong.”

Jim McKay
Justice Editor

Microsoft Scientists Use Visualization to Bring Information to Life

Microsoft Scientists Use Visualization to Bring Information to Life

http://intelligence-architect.com/blog/2005/04/microsoft-scientists-use-visualization.html

Microsoft Scientists Use Visualization to Bring Information to Life
Researchers in the field of human-computer interaction show how innovative information visualization tools can transform the way business users, consumers and software developers process and organize today’s ever-increasing amounts of data.
PORTLAND, Ore. — April 5, 2005 — This week, computer scientists from Microsoft Research labs worldwide will share the results of more than 25 research papers at the CHI 2005 conference, a leading forum for the exchange of ideas and information about human-computer interaction (HCI) sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interactions (ACM SIGCHI). Three of the papers are Best Paper Award nominees.
The bulk of the work presented by Microsoft Research focuses on the study of information visualization and can potentially change the way businesses, software developers and consumers process and organize information. The work is the result of collaboration with computer research scientists at more than 16 universities and several corporations from around the globe.
At the event, Senior Microsoft Researcher Susan Dumais will be inducted into the CHI Academy for her substantial contribution to the study of HCI and the leadership role she has played in shaping that field. More information about Dumais is available in her profile at http://research.microsoft.com.
Innovation That Builds on a Decade of Work in Information Visualization
People today are inundated with information, from e-mail and instant messages to images, documents and search results. Scientists at Microsoft Research recognize that as technology continues to advance, giving people access to even more information, tools are needed to help users comprehend and process that information in order to identify what pieces of data are most important to them.
Information visualization takes the digital bits of information stored on a computer, personal digital assistant (PDA) or Microsoft® Window Mobile (TM) -based Smartphone — such as documents, Web pages, e-mail messages and schedules — and displays them visually, rather than as text. This technology benefits users by exposing patterns and trends in the torrent of data they work with daily, so the most important information becomes automatically visible.
“Information visualization is a hot topic today because computer system and graphics capabilities have reached a point where the visual representation of information can come to life,” said George Robertson, senior researcher at Microsoft Research. “We can now experiment with information visualization technologies that we’ve been developing in the lab over the past 10 years and expand on them for the benefit of users and the research community.”
Microsoft Research studies have shown that information visualization can reduce the amount of time people spend deciphering which pieces of information are important, thus helping them be more productive. The technology has practical applications in numerous daily activities including managing e-mail, navigating information on small devices, and effectively organizing family events and communicating in the home.
Visualization Tools Bring Useful Insights to Businesses, Consumers and Developers
Information visualization tools will help businesses better manage the vast amounts of data they are accumulating on customers, products, employees, production requirements and more. The technology also is expected to change how information workers process e-mail1 by presenting it in a “glanceable” graphical manner that is nondisruptive, yet able to signify urgent and important communications. Ease-of-use improvements for mobile devices include tools for one-handed thumb navigation,2 more-effective browsing functions such as zooming and scrolling,3 and preservation of Web page layouts designed for viewing on a PC.4 Microsoft Research found that better preservation of page layout helped participants locate content in Web pages about 41 percent faster while having to scroll 51 percent less. For mobile workers, this translates to greater efficiency because they can quickly find information that is meaningful without having to scroll through multiple screens of text.
Information visualization tools benefit software developers as well. Visualization technologies will simplify the viewing of schemas, making it possible for users to effectively focus on the most relevant items while de-emphasizing or removing items of no relevance for a particular interaction.5 Visual representation also will change how software developers and other information workers design timelines,6 because it allows users to specify the relative ordering and causality of events without specifying exact times or durations. These capabilities will help streamline the project development process by simplifying planning and execution.
Microsoft researchers are also exploring the consumer applications of information visualization tools in the home, specifically, how to effectively keep families organized and connected. For example, they have developed a method of presenting digital photo collections in a visual manner that makes photo organization and retrieval significantly easier:7 study participants were able to find photos 45 percent faster in their personal photo collections averaging 4,000 items. Researchers also created an electronic “bulletin board” that allows family members to send text messages from their mobile devices to a centrally located message board displayed in the home.8
“To date, technology for the home has focused on entertainment and security systems, and the development of smart homes that know when to turn on the oven for dinner or provide automatic lighting,” said Alex Taylor, a researcher with the Interactive Systems Group at Microsoft Research in Cambridge, England. “We’re studying the real, day-to-day concerns of ordinary households, including how families interact, share information, prioritize their schedules and delegate responsibilities. Our goal is to develop in-home technologies that assist family members with tasks such as scheduling, bill paying and delegating household responsibilities, while accommodating the rich and diverse ways in which individual families organize their homes.” Taylor’s research into organizing the home is presented in the paper “Artful Systems in the Home,” a Best Paper nominee at the conference.
CHI 2005 Best Paper Award Nominees
Three Microsoft Research papers are nominated for the Best Paper Award at the CHI 2005 conference. The Microsoft Research nominated papers are as follows:
“Artful Systems in the Home” 9 introduces the idea of organizing systems in the home through the use of calendars, paper notes, to-do lists and more. It discusses general implications for designing information technology for the home and accommodating the rich and diverse ways in which people organize their homes.
“AppLens and LaunchTile: Two Designs for One-Handed Thumb Use on Small Devices” 2 focuses on interfaces designed to support one-handed thumb navigation of mobile devices. AppLens and LaunchTile work with a traditional cell phone keypad as well as a PDA-style device with a touch-sensitive display.
“Snap-and-Go: Helping Users Align Objects without the Modality of Traditional Snapping” 10 covers snapping, a widely used technique that helps users position graphical objects precisely. Snap-and-go simplifies the user interface by eliminating the need for deactivation, introducing snapping to application scenarios in which traditional snapping is inapplicable.
The 23rd annual CHI conference runs through Thursday, April 7, at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland. More information about CHI 2005 can be found at http://www.chi2005.org.
About Microsoft Research
Founded in 1991, Microsoft Research is dedicated to conducting both basic and applied research in computer science and software engineering. Its goals are to enhance the user experience on computing devices, reduce the cost of writing and maintaining software, and invent novel computing technologies. Researchers focus on more than 55 areas of computing and collaborate with leading academic, government and industry researchers to advance the state of the art in such areas as graphics, speech recognition, user-interface research, natural language processing, programming tools and methodologies, operating systems and networking, and the mathematical sciences. Microsoft Research employs more than 700 people in six labs located in Redmond, Wash.; San Francisco; Silicon Valley, Calif.; Cambridge, England; Beijing; and Bangalore, India. More information can be found at http://www.research.microsoft.com.
About Microsoft
Founded in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq “MSFT”) is the worldwide leader in software, services and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential.
1 “Info-Lotus: A Peripheral Visualization for Email Notification,” Leizhong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia (China); Nan Tu, Tsinghua University (China); David Vronay, Microsoft Research Asia (China); April 2005
2 “AppLens and LaunchTile: Two Designs for One-Handed Thumb Use on Small Devices,” Amy K. Karlson, University of Maryland (U.S.); Benjamin B. Bederson, University of Maryland (U.S.); John SanGiovanni, Microsoft Research (U.S.); April 2005
3 “Learning User Interest for Image Browsing on Small-Form-Factor Devices,” Xing Xie, Microsoft Research Asia (China); Hao Liu, Chinese University of Hong Kong (China); Simon Goumaz, Microsoft Research Asia (China); Wei-Ying Ma, Microsoft Research Asia (China); April 2005
4 “Summary Thumbnails: Readable Overviews for Small Screen Web Browsers,” Heidi Lam, University of British Columbia (Canada); Patrick Baudisch, Microsoft Research (U.S.); April 2005
5 “Visualization of Mappings Between Schemas,” George G. Robertson, Microsoft Research (U.S.); Mary P. Czerwinski, Microsoft Research (U.S.); John E. Churchill, Microsoft Research (U.S.); April 2005
6 “Flexible Timeline User Interface Using Constraints,” Kazutaka Kurihara, University of Tokyo (Japan); David Vronay, Microsoft Research Asia (China); Takeo Igarashi, University of Tokyo (Japan); April 2005
7 “Time Quilt: Scaling up Zoomable Photo Browsers for Large, Unstructured Photo Collections,” David Huynh, MIT CSAIL (U.S.); Steven Drucker, Patrick Baudisch, Curtis Wong, Microsoft Research (U.S.); April 2005
8 “TxtBoard: From Text-to-Person to Text-to-Home,” Kenton O’Hara, Richard Harper, Microsoft Research Cambridge (U.K.); Axel Unger, IDEO (Germany); James Wilkes, Bill Sharpe, Marcel Jansen, The Appliance Studio University Gate (U.K.); April 2005
9 “Artful Systems in the Home,” Alex S. Taylor, Microsoft Research (U.K.); Laurel Swan, Brunel University (U.K.); April 2005
10 “Snap-and-Go: Helping Users Align Objects without the Modality of Traditional Snapping,” Patrick Baudisch, Microsoft Research (U.S.); Edward Cutrell, Microsoft Research (U.S.); Ken Hinckley, Microsoft Research (U.S.); Adam Eversole, Microsoft Research (U.S.); April 2005

Polo: Customer Identifty Theft Reported

: “Polo Ralph Lauren Customers’ Data Stolen

Associated Press
Thursday, April 14, 2005

NEW YORK – Data apparently stolen from the popular clothing retailer Polo Ralph Lauren Inc. is forcing banks and credit card issuers to notify thousands of consumers that their credit-card information may have been exposed.
HSBC North America, a division of London-based HSBC Holdings PLC, has begun notifying holders of the HSBC-issued, General Motors-branded MasterCard that criminals may have obtained access to their credit card information and that the cards should be replaced.
HSBC spokesman Stephen E. Cohen said Thursday that ‘we began doing it last week, and we are continuing.’
He said that about 180,000 GM-branded card holders are affected.
Neither Cohen nor spokesmen for MasterCard International would identify the retailer by name.
The security breach was reported in Thursday’s editions of The Wall Street Journal, which quoted ‘people with knowledge of the matter’ as saying the data was stolen at Polo Ralph Lauren.
Phone calls to Polo Ralph Lauren, which is headquartered in New York, were not immediately returned.
It was unclear how many other cards might be at risk, but both Visa USA Inc. and MasterCard – the nation’s largest credit card associations – were reported to be dealing with Polo Ralph Lauren on the matter.
MasterCard said in a statement that it was informed of a possible security breach ‘of transaction data associated with a U.S.-based retailer’ in January 2005 and had launched an investigation immediately. The statement said banks that are members of the card association were notified.
‘Investigations into this incident by MasterCard, law enforcement and other parties are ongoing,’ the statement said.
It was the latest in a series of data thefts that have increa”

MicroStrategy Announces First Quarter 2005 Financial Results

MicroStrategy Announces First Quarter 2005 Financial Results: ”

Microstrategy announces today a 22% year-to-year increase in revenue, to $60 million last quarter. New deals and new projecs with existing customers has been impressive. The company provides direct access to SAP BW through an MDX / Dynamic sql layer.

New Customers:
New customers and new deals with existing customers in Q1 2005 included:

American Healthways; American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty
Underwriters; AmerisourceBergen Corporation; Bank of the West; BI-LO, LLC;
Brickstream; Cancer Care Ontario; Charming Shoppes; Chuck Latham Associates;
Classic Residence by Hyatt; Communifax Corporation; Corporate Express; Dick’s
Sporting Goods; Finali Corporation; Finlay Enterprises; Forest Laboratories;
Giorgio Armani Corporation; ImpactRX; Intel Corporation; Liquor Control Board
of Ontario; Northwest Evaluation Association; Oakwood Homes; Payless
ShoeSource, Inc.; Petco Animal Supplies, Inc.; Porsche Cars North America;
Rewards Plus; RGA Reinsurance Company; Rheem Manufacturing; Rite-Hite
Corporation; Scott & White Memorial Hospital; Solucient L.L.C.; Starbucks
Corporation; Temple-Inland Corporation Services; Upsher-Smith Laboratories,
Inc.; Verispan, LLC; Wells Fargo Home Mortgage; Wilton Industries, Inc.”

Polo: Customer Identifty Theft Reported

: “Polo Ralph Lauren Customers’ Data Stolen

Associated Press

Thursday, April 14, 2005

NEW YORK – Data apparently stolen from the popular clothing retailer Polo Ralph Lauren Inc. is forcing banks and credit card issuers to notify thousands of consumers that their credit-card information may have been exposed.

HSBC North America, a division of London-based HSBC Holdings PLC, has begun notifying holders of the HSBC-issued, General Motors-branded MasterCard that criminals may have obtained access to their credit card information and that the cards should be replaced.

HSBC spokesman Stephen E. Cohen said Thursday that ‘we began doing it last week, and we are continuing.’

He said that about 180,000 GM-branded card holders are affected.

Neither Cohen nor spokesmen for MasterCard International would identify the retailer by name.

The security breach was reported in Thursday’s editions of The Wall Street Journal, which quoted ‘people with knowledge of the matter’ as saying the data was stolen at Polo Ralph Lauren.

Phone calls to Polo Ralph Lauren, which is headquartered in New York, were not immediately returned.

It was unclear how many other cards might be at risk, but both Visa USA Inc. and MasterCard – the nation’s largest credit card associations – were reported to be dealing with Polo Ralph Lauren on the matter.

MasterCard said in a statement that it was informed of a possible security breach ‘of transaction data associated with a U.S.-based retailer’ in January 2005 and had launched an investigation immediately. The statement said banks that are members of the card association were notified.

‘Investigations into this incident by MasterCard, law enforcement and other parties are ongoing,’ the statement said.

It was the latest in a series of data thefts that have increa”

MicroStrategy Announces First Quarter 2005 Financial Results

MicroStrategy Announces First Quarter 2005 Financial Results: “

Microstrategy announces today a 22% year-to-year increase in revenue, to $60 million last quarter. New deals and new projecs with existing customers has been impressive. The company provides direct access to SAP BW through an MDX / Dynamic sql layer.

New Customers:
New customers and new deals with existing customers in Q1 2005 included:

American Healthways; American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty
Underwriters; AmerisourceBergen Corporation; Bank of the West; BI-LO, LLC;
Brickstream; Cancer Care Ontario; Charming Shoppes; Chuck Latham Associates;
Classic Residence by Hyatt; Communifax Corporation; Corporate Express; Dick’s
Sporting Goods; Finali Corporation; Finlay Enterprises; Forest Laboratories;
Giorgio Armani Corporation; ImpactRX; Intel Corporation; Liquor Control Board
of Ontario; Northwest Evaluation Association; Oakwood Homes; Payless
ShoeSource, Inc.; Petco Animal Supplies, Inc.; Porsche Cars North America;
Rewards Plus; RGA Reinsurance Company; Rheem Manufacturing; Rite-Hite
Corporation; Scott & White Memorial Hospital; Solucient L.L.C.; Starbucks
Corporation; Temple-Inland Corporation Services; Upsher-Smith Laboratories,
Inc.; Verispan, LLC; Wells Fargo Home Mortgage; Wilton Industries, Inc.”

Collection of Link Images

Taylor McKnight – //gtmcknight